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Its capital and most populous city is Minsk. Its major economic sectors are service industries and manufacturing. In the aftermath of the Russian RevolutionBelarus sex shop Bielorussia independence as the Belarusian People's Republicwhich was conquered by Soviet Russia.

Belarus lost almost half of its territory to Poland after the Polish—Soviet War of — The parliament of the republic proclaimed the sovereignty of Belarus on 27 Julyand during the dissolution of the Soviet UnionBelarus declared independence on 25 August Belarus has been labeled "Europe's last dictatorship" by some Western journalists, [15] [16] on account of Lukashenko's self-described authoritarian style of government.

Sex shop Bielorussia under Lukashenko's rule sex shop Bielorussia been widely criticized as unfair; and according to many countries and organizations, political opposition has been violently suppressed. Belarus is also the last country in Europe using the death penalty. InBelarus and Russia signed a treaty for greater cooperation, forming the Union State. Since a referendum inthe country has had sex shop Bielorussia official languages: Belarusian and Russian. The Constitution of Belarus does not declare any official religion, although the primary religion in the country is Eastern Orthodox Christianity.

The second-most widespread religion, Roman Catholicismhas a much smaller following; sex shop Bielorussia, Belarus celebrates both Sex shop Bielorussia and Catholic versions of Christmas and Easter as national holidays. Belarus has shown no aspirations for joining the European Union but nevertheless maintains a bilateral relationship with the organisationand likewise participates in two EU projects: the Eastern Partnership and the Baku Initiative. The name Belarus is closely related with the term Belaya Rus 'i.

There are several claims to the origin of the name White Rus'. An alternate explanation for the name comments on the white clothing worn by the local Slavic population. The name first appeared in German and Latin medieval literature ; the chronicles of Jan of Czarnków mention the imprisonment of Lithuanian grand duke Jogaila and his mother at " Albae Russiae, Poloczk dicto " in After the Bolshevik Revolution inthe term "White Russia" caused some confusion, as it was also the name of the military force that opposed the red Bolsheviks.

The law decreed that all the forms of the new term should sex shop Bielorussia transliterated into other languages from their Belarusian language forms. The use of Byelorussian SSR and any abbreviations thereof were allowed from to Accordingly, the name Byelorussia was replaced by Belarus in English.

Belarusian is closer to the original Belarusian term of bielaruski. Also, those who wish for Belarus to be reunited with Russia continue to use Belorussia. From to BC, Bandkeramik cultures predominated. In addition, remains from the Dnieper-Donets culture were found sex shop Bielorussia Belarus and parts of Ukraine. Invaders from Asia, among whom were the Huns and Avarssex shop Bielorussia through c.

The region that is now Belarus was first settled by Baltic tribes in sex shop Bielorussia 3rd century. Around the 5th century, the area was taken over by Slavic tribes. The takeover was partially due to the lack of military coordination of the Balts but the gradual assimilation of the Balts into Slavic culture was peaceful in nature.

In the 9th century the territory of modern Belarus became part of Kievan Rus'a vast East Slavic state ruled by the Rurikid dynasty. Upon the death of Kievan Rus' ruler Yaroslav I the Wise sex shop Bielorussia, the state split into independent principalities.

There are no sources of military seizure, but the annals affirm the alliance and united foreign policy of Polotsk and Lithuania for decades. For example, the Chronicle of Novgorod informs about "Izyaslav had been set to be Knyaz in Luki and covered Novgorod from the Lithuanians" in when Luki is situated on the east from Polotsk.

Incorporation into sex shop Bielorussia Grand Duchy of Lithuania resulted in an economic, political and ethno-cultural unification of Belarusian lands. On 2 Februarythe Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Kingdom of Poland were joined in a personal union through a marriage of their rulers. The Lithuanian nobles were forced to go for rapprochement because of the threat coming from Muscovy.

To strengthen the independence in the format sex shop Bielorussia the union, three editions of the Statutes of Lithuania were issued in the 16th century.

The third Article of the Statute establishes that all lands of Grand Duchy sex shop Bielorussia Lithuania will be eternally in Grand Duchy of Lithuania and never enter as sex shop Bielorussia part of other states.

It allowed to own the land within Grand Duchy of Lithuania only to own families. Anyone from outside Duchy would be honored with property only own it after swearing to Grand Duke of Lithuania. These articles were aimed to defend the rights of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania nobility against Polish, Prussian and other aristocracy of Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth. In the years following the union, the process of gradual Polonization of sex shop Bielorussia Lithuanians and Ruthenians gained steady momentum.

In culture and social life, both the Polish language and Catholicism became dominant, and inPolish replaced Ruthenian as the official language—with the Ruthenian language being banned from administrative use. Sex shop Bielorussia were sex shop Bielorussia only issued in Ruthenian language sex shop Bielorussia later also in Polish. Around the Statutes were banned by the Russian tsar following the November Uprising.

Modern Ukrainian sex shop Bielorussia used it until s. Policies of Polonization [60] changed by Russification[61] sex shop Bielorussia included the return to Orthodox Christianity of Belorusian Uniates. Belarusian language was banned in schools while in neighboring Samogitia primary school education with Samogitian literacy was allowed. In a Russification drive in the s, Nicholas I prohibited use of the Belarusian language in public sex shop Bielorussia, campaigned against Belarusian publications and tried to pressure those who had converted to Catholicism under the Poles to reconvert to the Orthodox faith.

Ineconomic and cultural pressure exploded in a revoltled by Konstanty Kalinowski. After the failed revolt, the Russian government reintroduced the use of Cyrillic to Belarusian in and no documents in Belarusian were permitted by the Russian government until During the negotiations of the Treaty of Brest-LitovskBelarus first declared independence under German occupation on 25 Marchforming the Belarusian People's Republic.

The Belarusian People's Republic was the first attempt to create an independent Belarusian state under name "Belarus". Despite significant efforts the state ceased to exist, primarily because the territory was continually dominated by the German Imperial Army and the Imperial Russian Army in World War Iand then the Bolshevik Red Army.

It existed only from to but created prerequisites for the formation of the state idea around the name "Belarus". The choice of the name was probably based the fact that the educated core of sex shop Bielorussia newly formed government was educated in the tsardom universities, with a corresponding education around the ideology of West-Russianism. The Republic of Central Lithuania was a short-lived political entity, which was the sex shop Bielorussia attempt to restore Lithuania in the historical confederacy sex shop Bielorussia it was also supposed to create Lithuania Upper and Lithuania Lower.

Centered on the historical capital of the Grand Sex shop Bielorussia of LithuaniaVilna Lithuanian : VilniusPolish : Wilnofor 18 months the entity served as a buffer state between Polandupon which it depended, and Lithuania, which claimed the area. In the s and s, Soviet sex shop Bielorussia and economic policies, including collectivization and five-year plans for the national economyled to famine and political repression.

The Soviets invaded and annexed much of eastern Poland, which had been part of the country since the Peace of Riga two decades earlier. Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet Union in The Brest Fortresswhich had been annexed inat this time was subjected to one of the most destructive onslaughts that happened during the war. Deaths are estimated to be over 1 million, sex shop Bielorussia Jewish population of Sex shop Bielorussia was devastated during the Holocaust and never recovered.

After the war, Belarus was among the 51 founding countries of the United Nations Charter and as such it was allowed an additional vote at the UN, on top of the Soviet Union's vote.

Vigorous postwar reconstruction promptly followed the end of the war and the Byelorussian SSR became a major center of manufacturing in the western USSR, creating jobs and attracting ethnic Russians. After Stalin's death inSex shop Bielorussia Khrushchev continued his predecessor's cultural hegemony program, stating, "The sooner we all start speaking Russian, sex shop Bielorussia faster we shall build communism.

With the support of the Communist Party, the country's name was changed to the Republic of Belarus on 25 August Sex shop Bielorussia national constitution was adopted in March in which the functions of prime minister were given to the President of Belarus.

Two-round elections for the presidency on 24 June and 10 July [86] catapulted the formerly unknown Alexander Lukashenko into national prominence. Lukashenko was re-elected ininin and again in Western governments, [87] Amnesty International[19] and Human Rights Watch [18] have criticized Lukashenko's authoritarian style of government.

Sincefollowing years of embrace of Russian influence in the country, Lukashenko has pressed a revival of Belarusian identity, following the Russian annexation of Crimea and military intervention in Eastern Ukraine.

For the first time, he delivered a speech in Belarusian rather than Russian, which most people usein which sex shop Bielorussia said, "We are not Russian—we are Belarusians", and later encouraged sex shop Bielorussia use of Belarusian. Trade disputes, a border dispute, and a much relaxed official attitude to dissident voices are all part of a weakening of the longtime warm relationship with Russia. InLukashenko had bilateral talks in Sochi with Russian president Vladimir Putin and sex shop Bielorussia that their two countries "could unite tomorrow, no problem.

Many streams and 11, lakes are found in Belarus. The Neman flows westward towards the Baltic sea and the Pripyat flows eastward to the Dnieper; the Dnieper flows southward towards the Black Sea. Natural resources include peat deposits, small quantities of oil and natural gas, granitedolomite limestonemarlchalk, sand, gravel, and clay. Sex shop Bielorussia borders five countries: Latvia to the north, Lithuania to the northwest, Poland to the west, Russia to the north and the east, sex shop Bielorussia Ukraine to the south.

Treaties in and demarcated Belarus's borders with Latvia and Lithuania, and Belarus ratified a treaty establishing sex shop Bielorussia Belarus-Ukraine sex shop Bielorussia in Belarus is a presidential republic, governed by a president and the National Assembly. Sex shop Bielorussia term for each presidency is five years.

Under the constitution, the sex shop Bielorussia could serve for only two terms as president, but a change in the constitution in eliminated term limits. InLukashenko called for a controversial vote to extend the presidential term from five to seven years, and as a result the election that was supposed to occur in was pushed back to The referendum on the extension was denounced as a "fantastic" fake by the chief electoral officer, Viktar Hancharwho was removed from the office for official matters only during the campaign.

The House of Representatives has the power to appoint the prime ministermake constitutional amendments, call for a vote of confidence on the prime minister, and make suggestions on foreign and domestic policy. Each chamber has the ability to veto any law passed by local officials if it is contrary to the constitution. The government includes a Council of Ministers, headed by the prime minister and five deputy prime ministers.

The judiciary comprises the Supreme Court and specialized courts such as the Constitutional Courtwhich deals with specific issues related to constitutional and business law.

The judges of national courts are appointed by the president and confirmed by the Council of the Republic. For criminal cases, the highest court of appeal is the Supreme Court. The Belarusian Constitution forbids the use of special extrajudicial courts. In the parliamentary electionof the members elected to the House of Representatives were not affiliated with any political party. Groups such as the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe OSCE declared the election "un-free" because of the opposition parties' poor results and media bias in favor of the government.

Kazulin was detained and beaten by police during protests surrounding the All Belarusian People's Assembly. When opposition protesters took to the streets in Minskmany people, including most rival presidential candidates, were beaten and arrested by the state militia.

The judicial system in Belarus lacks independence and is subject to political interference. Lukashenko has described himself as having an "authoritarian ruling style". The Belarusian government is also criticized for human rights violations and sex shop Bielorussia persecution of non-governmental organisations, independent journalists, national minorities, and opposition politicians.